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Gillian Avery makes the point that many of her stories were far too difficult for other than an educated adult readership. The pioneering work of Louisa M. Of some interest are examples of what were popular with girl readers in the late nineteenth century.
Applied English Grammar And Composition By Pc Das.pdf
According to Salmon — 3 Sir Walter Scott and Charles Kingsley —75 were the second and third most favourite authors after Dickens. In addition Anstey and Farrar were listed. Be this as it may, it does appear that the tradition had taken hold with a growing number of female readers and we shall consider later how English writers in this tradition viewed the role of the female in the world that they represented to their young audience.
Recognisable adventures can occur in narratives that are also good examples of another tradition, namely that of the fantasy story. In many respects The Water Babies is a moral tale presented as a fairytale, a tradition closely related to that of fantasy, and indeed it is not always a simple task to differentiate between them.
There is also the literary fairytale which is perceived as based on, or at least as sharing certain features of the traditional fairytale and to which we shall return. The fairytale assumes magic in the same way that the realistic novel asumes its absence, fantasy fiction may incorporate a magical element, but when it does, that element, far from being assumed, is fantastic relative to the realistic aspects of the work.
Many, if not most, of the books published in this tradition are books which commanded a dual readership. Though Alice was written for children perhaps no book has ever had an audience so evenly divided between children and adults. Both authors have reversed worlds and indulge in absurd logic and word play.
Henceforth fear had gone, and with it shy disquiet. There was to be in hours of pleasure no more dread about the moral value, the ponderable, measured quality and extent, of the pleasure itself. It was to be enjoyed and even promoted with neither forethought nor remorse.
It is worth noting, however, as Carpenter reminds us , that Alice was by no means an immediate success.
Amongst those writers who are commonly agreed to be representative of it we can list George MacDonald — and in particular his At the Back of the North Wind , which was didactic but did not preach overtly, Richard Jeffries —87 and Bevis, the Story of a Boy , Edith Nesbit — and her comic fantasy Five Children and It , Kenneth Grahame — and The Wind in the Willows , Francis Hodgson Burnett — and The Secret Garden, published in It will be noted our concept of fantasy includes anthropomorphism as an element.
Thus, adventures may be had by animals with identifiable human feelings as well as by human children where there is some supernatural or other unreal element.
The fairytale, of course, has never been a tradition of works exclusively, or even primarily, for children. This perception may derive in part from certain features typical of fairytale narrative see chapter 5 and in part from the marketing and dissemination of fairytales.
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Today collections of fairytales are popular gifts for very young children Hallett and Karasak, —7 , and the tales are widely told in infant and nursery schools. As Steedman points out, attractively produced and priced editions of individual tales like Cinderella, Snow White and Little Red Riding Hood, specifically designed to appeal to children, are available in newspaper shops and supermarkets as well as bookshops.
In fact, most traditional fairytales came to British children in translations in which some adaptation had taken place see also Ellis, , for an account of the types of adaptation the Grimm brothers made to the tales they collected.
Throughout the nineteenth century earlier disapproval of the fairytale Mrs Trimmer was a fierce opponent faded as more and more tales from a variety of nations became available to young readers. The brothers Grimm Jacob, —; Wilhelm, — were first published in English in and Hans Christian Andersen —75 appeared throughout the s. Both Andersen and the brothers Grimm were cited as popular reading matter in the s see Salmon, , By the end of the century the genre was firmly established with the collections and translations of Joseph Jacobs — and Andrew Lang — amongst others.
Of course it is the tales as children read and hear them that are important in this study, but the traditional tales exist in different versions, and there are a number of difficulties for a project such as ours in using translated texts.
We therefore limit discussion in chapter 5 to literary fairytales written in English by identifiable authors whose social setting and background is known. The nineteenth century saw the fairytale arise as a new European literary genre partly as a result of the efforts of collectors of traditional folktales, and partly out of a desire among writers to use their craft in the service of child socialisation Zipes, As fairytales regained their respectability for an account of the loss of respectability during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries of the original folk- and fairytales see Zipes, Introduction.
The Industrial Revolution in England created what seemed to many writers a wholly materialistic society founded on greed and selfinterest and benefiting the few at the expense of the many with a new mass of urban poor having come into existence.
Nature appeared to have fallen into neglect, and human freedom seemed unduly curtailed by the institutionalisation which accompanied the rise of the new middle classes.
In this climate a series of controversies arose about the spiritual and material foundations of English life, nature, childrearing practices, the possibility of human freedom and about possible sources of social cohesion.
Zipes xxiii perceives two basic trends among fairytale writers during the period until The majority of writers embraced conventionalism, while a minority engaged in overt, nonconformist utopianism. According to Zipes xxiii-xxiv , conventionalist writers of the period conceived plots conventionally to reconcile themselves and their readers to the status quo of Victorian society.
After a brief period of disturbance,…extraordinary creatures generally enable the protagonists to integrate themselves into a prescribed social order. Zipes considers Edith Nesbit — conformist, while George MacDonald and Oscar Wilde — figure among writers he considers non-conformist utopians. These reveal a profound belief in the power of the imagination as a potent force that can be used to question the value of existing social relations.
There is also a moral impulse in this second direction. However, it does not lead to reconciliation with the status quo—rather, rebellion against convention and conformity. Fairy-tale protagonists are sent on quests which change them as the world around them also changes. The fairies and the other magical creatures inspire and compel the protagonists to alter their lives and pursue utopian dreams. Narratives of the Henty mould were being produced by any number of imitators.
Writers such as F. Brereton — and Percy F. Westerman — were amongst the more popular and were succeeded in turn by W. Johns — , the creator of Biggies.
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The s and s produced little that was original in terms of the adventure story. The narratives were stereotypical with both plots and characters fossilised in the s and s. The school story too produced little that was creative in the first half of the century. The tradition of the public schoolboy narrative had run its course by the end of World War II and by the s and s writers were, and still are, producing novels set with day-school backgrounds with characters and situations that are credible.
The inter-war years were not entirely barren. A different type of adventure emerged.
Indeed their middle classness has provoked strong criticism of Ransome. This purported to depict working-class life as it really was.
Unhappily the shadow of One End Street hangs over much contemporary realistic writing for children. The fantasy story continued to appear in Britain though the period between the wars is not, as we noted, universally regarded as a particularly creative one. In , however, The Hobbit by J. In The Hobbit he recreated the world with minute detail.
There were maps, there was natural history, there was geology, there were languages and in this world adventures took place. Inglis comments: The Hobbit is the…best link between a present day child and the world which made these stories up in order to describe the early colonizing of England. It has, however, been read by many children and it is in so many ways a book for a young readership. Tolkien provides a quest to be undertaken by the hero a male and his companions.
They sustain many adventures as they undertake the long and dangerous journey. Good and evil are presented without subtlety and moral choices are easily perceived but not always easily made Kirkpatrick, In addition he was strongly influenced by the fairy books of Andrew Lang and the works of George McDonald ibid.
A further point of interest is made by Michael Wood in terms of the theology of the book. Lewis — Lewis was also dealing with subjects that in the s were regarded as taboo for children.
On the one hand was the breezy, optimistic adventure story, set firmly in the real world though greatly exaggerating certain characteristics of that world. We now see established adult writers entering the field. The general lack of creativity that marked the interwar years appeared to be over. Alan Garner — was one of the most widely discussed writers of the s and s.
In The Owl Service the layers involve the present time, a time past and a mythical time.
In Red Shift the layers are three independent stories operating at different periods of time. However, the undoubted originality and evident popularity the two are not always compatible of some authors warrants a brief focus of attention.
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Lewis — The narratives were stereotypical with both plots and characters fossilised in the s and s. Edward Salmon cites Scott as the third most popular author with boy readers. This perception may derive in part from certain features typical of fairytale narrative see chapter 5 and in part from the marketing and dissemination of fairytales. We set out intending to add to the latter a study with a specific focus on language, because it seemed to us indisputable that the effects, whatever they might be, which literature might work on children, must be mediated largely through the language which constitutes the texts in question.
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